3.18 Multi Agency Arrangements in Respect of Persons Presenting a Risk to Children
In September 2013, a link was added to the MAPPA Guidance 2012.
- Persons Presenting a Risk to Children
- Persons who Pose a Risk to Children Assessments
- Notifications: National Probation Service Youth Offending Service
- Prison Notifications
- West Midlands Police Referrals
- Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements
- Information Sharing
- The "Duty to Cooperate" Agencies
- Adults who pose a Risk to Children Set Asides
Appendix 1: Schedule 1 Offences
Appendix 2: List of offences (LASSAL 2005)
This Chapter describes arrangements for managing risks presented to children in general. The concerns about an individual may arise from their behaviour in a family and the possibility that this behaviour could be repeated in another family or employment setting; or from offending against children outside a family setting. Inter-agency working is essential to promote and safeguard the welfare of children.
There is a need for guidance and procedures to ensure adults who pose risks to children are managed.
Information needs to be shared between the agencies in order to reduce and manage the risks posed to children and young people by adults and young people when managing people who have been identified as presenting a risk or potential risk to children.
This document addresses the action that will be taken by the agencies in respect of:
- Notifications received from the West Midlands Probation Service regarding adults charged with offences against children;
- Notifications received from Prison authorities about the admission to, movement within and discharge from the prison system of adults who at any time have been convicted of offences against children;
- Prison Authorities will also request assessments in respect of children visiting custodial settings;
- Requests for assessments in respect of children visiting risky adults in Special Hospitals;
- Notifications from the Youth Offending service regarding children who are currently being processed by the Courts with offences against children. The Youth Offending Service will notify the Safeguarding Children Service of the admission to, movement within and discharge from the prison system of children who have at any time been convicted of offences against children;
- The Child Protection agencies’ responsibilities and duties in respect of the Sex Offenders Act 1997 and the role of the Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangement within the West Midlands;
- Procedures for keeping records of an offender and the archiving of the above information.
The term ‘Schedule 1 offender’ has been commonly used to identifying anyone convicted of an offence against a child is no longer helpful. The term ‘Risk to Children’ should therefore be adopted for those persons who have been identified as posing an ongoing risk to a child.
The conclusion that an individual poses a ‘Risk to Children’ should be based on all available information including that provided by relevant agencies, such as assessments of risk made by Probation, Police, Health, whether individually or via the Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA).
The revised list of offences in Appendix 2: List of offences (LASSAL 2005) provides a useful update of relevant legislation to protect children. However, it should not be deemed to be exhaustive, or used purely as a ‘trigger’ to denote risk. Rather the protection of children at risk of significant harm remains the responsibility of practitioners exercising their professional judgement.
The Safeguarding Children Service are the designated social care representatives for Children’s Social Care Services and will remain the ongoing liaison point between Children’s Social Care Services and the respective agencies relating to families with whom they are actively involved.
Where an agency notifies Children’s Social Care Services that a person known to have committed relevant offences and assessed as presenting a continuing risk is known to be in contact with children, this information will be passed to the relevant children’s social care service who will undertake a Child and Family Assessment in all cases ad the child’s parent and or carer will be seen to establish the parent/carers ability to understand the risk and capacity to protect the child from harm.
Where there are concerns about the parent/carer’s ability to protect the child from harm enquiries under Section 47 of the Children Act will be undertaken.
Within these assessments relevant details of any conviction or behaviours of concern relating to the person presenting risk to children will be shared with the parent/carer in order that they can make informed decisions about the protection of their child. Information will also be shared with the child in a an age appropriate way, where tit is felt to be in the best interests of the child and helpful to the assessment.
Prior to attending the Multi Agency Public Protection Panel, the Safeguarding Children Service will contact the appropriate Children’s Social Care Service where a serious or violent offender who is considered to pose a risk or potential risk to the children. This information will be shared with the other agencies on the panel.
As a consequence of information shared at the panel it may be necessary for the Safeguarding Children Service Officer to contact the relevant Children’s Social Care Service to initiate further enquiries. It will be the responsibility of that Children’s Social Care Service to feed back the outcome of their enquiries to the Safeguarding Children Service in writing.
On receipt of a notification from the National Probation Service regarding adults charged/convicted of offences against children, or the Coventry Youth Offending Service regarding young people who are being processed, or have been convicted for offences against children, the Safeguarding Children Service will undertake checks across all electronic and manual records held by the Children’s Social Care Services on all individuals named, including the victim.
The Safeguarding Children Service will liaise with the relevant local West Midlands Police Operational Command Unit (OCU), the Joint Public Protection Unit (JPPU) and where relevant the Youth Offending Service to obtain any further information necessary for processing the notification e.g. identity of victims, ages, addresses, whether the defendant lives with children or has regular contact with children.
The Safeguarding Children Service will then send a copy of the notification and relevant information to the relevant Children’s Social Care Service:
- In which the defendant lives; and/or
- Dealing with the victim; and/or
- In which the victim lives.
In urgent situations, for example where the release of a convicted perpetrator from prison may be imminent and or where a young person (under 18 years) has allegedly sexually assaulted another young person in the family, the Safeguarding Children Service Officer will inform by telephone the relevant Children’s Social Care Locality Service. The discussion will be recorded and the outcome confirmed in writing.
In the event of a defendant living with, or having regular contact with, children, a Section 47 Enquiry (Child Protection Enquiry) will be completed in line with the Inter-Agency Child Protection Procedures, which will include a Strategy Discussion/Meeting. The outcome of the assessment must be communicated to the Safeguarding Children Service within 15 working days.
The original notification will be filed at the Safeguarding Children Service and a copy will be sent to the relevant Social Care Office.
A copy of the information will be retained for 70 years.
In 1994 the Prison Service issued instructions to all prison governors, requiring them to notify Children’s Social Care Services of a convicted perpetrators:
- Arrival into prison;
- Being considered for release on parole/on a temporary licence/or transferred to open conditions;
- About to be released;
- Appealing against sentence and subsequent release;
- Transferring to another prison;
- Escapes from custody.
On receipt of a notification from the Prison Service the Safeguarding Children Service will undertake checks across all electronic and manual records held by the Children’s Social Care Services on all individuals named, including the victim, then pass the notification and basic details to the relevant Children’s Social Care Service in which the defendant lives and/or dealing with the victim.
The Safeguarding Children Service Officer dealing with the notification will write to the originator and the relevant social worker where there is a clear and current link, i.e. by virtue of a child(ren) closely associated with the offender whose case(s) is/are currently open. In the absence of any such link the Safeguarding Children Service will be stated as the contact person for future liaison.
The Safeguarding Children Service will establish details from the Probation Offender Manager to whom the case is allocated and confirm with the case holder that he/she is intending to complete the usual Probation procedures for checking home circumstances, assessing the suitability of release plans and reporting the views of Probation and Social Services Department to the Prison Authorities.
The Safeguarding Children Service will then forward to the relevant Social Worker or Team Manager a copy of the notification along with details of the nominated Probation Worker. In the absence of any link between the offender and children or families known to the Social Care Services, this will be the Social Care Manager for the area to which it is proposed to discharge the prisoner.
The relevant Children’s Social Care Service will investigate and assess the situation as appropriate and report the outcome of these enquiries to the nominated Probation Worker.
Any Police Officer who becomes involved in the course of their duty with an individual(s) who is charged with a Schedule 1 Offence and/or subsequent concern(s) in relation to child abuse, has a duty to refer to the Children’s Social Care Service in whose area the victim lives.
The Police Officer must establish whether or not the alleged perpetrator lives in a household where there are children. This information is to be passed to the relevant Children’s Social Care Service in whose area the alleged perpetrator lives. This is to be done as soon as is practicable. They should also inform the police Child Abuse Investigation unit.
The referral should be made within the timescales stated in Working Together to Safeguard Children and Referrals Procedure.
Referrals outside of regular office hours should be made to the Children’s Social Care Emergency Duty Team (see Contacts Details Appendix).
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) emerged in the West Midlands and elsewhere during the late 1990’s, most notably in response to the introduction of the Sex Offender Act 1997. From the outset, the avowed purpose of the arrangements was to minimise the risk to the public posed by those convicted of serious sexual or violent offences.
The Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000 placed the Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements on a statutory footing. The Act required Police and Probation to make arrangements for the assessment and management of the risks posed by sexual and violent offenders and other offenders who may cause serious harm to the public.
The Criminal Justice Act 2003 has further strengthened the Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. The Act makes the Prison Service part of the Responsible Authority, imposes a duty to cooperate with Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements on a range of other agencies and requires areas to recruit lay advisers onto the Strategic Management Board (SMB). This latest provision has already been effected in the West Midlands which was a pilot area for the lay advisor initiative.
Jointly defined as the responsible authority, Police and Probation were charged by the Act to establish Multi-Agency Public Protection Panels (MAPPPs). Associated duties included the requirement to:
- Establish strategic management arrangements for reviewing and monitoring the effectiveness of the arrangements made;
- Establish systems to ensure that only those “critical few” offenders who pose the greatest threat to the public are referred to MAPPPs;
- Establish Systems for information sharing and inter-agency collaboration in request of all relevant offenders;
- Consider resource allocation and the need for multi-agency training;
- Develop strategies for community and media communications;
- Publish an Annual Report describing local Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA), including statistical information.
The West Midlands Public Protection Panels provide a consistent framework for sharing information on persons identified as sex offenders or potentially dangerous offenders living in or frequenting the West Midlands. Information is shared between:
- West Midlands Police;
- West Midlands Probation Service;
- the Local Authorities of the West Midlands;
- the Health Authorities of the West Midlands;
- HM Prison Service;
- the West Midlands Fire Service.
The Purposes of Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements
The National Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements Guidance Manual, issues as Probation Circular 54/2004, confirms the four key functions of the MAPPA as being:
- The identification of MAPPA offenders;
- The sharing of relevant information by participating agencies;
- The assessment of the risk of serious harm;
- The management of that risk.
The functions are dynamic and overlapping. Information sharing, risk assessment and risk management must be - and must be understood to be - a continual process not a one-off event.
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements Offenders
There are three categories of convicted offenders, known as “the relevant offenders”, who fall within the remit of the MAPPA:
- Category 1: sexual offenders required to register with the Police under the terms of the Sex Offender Act 1997 and its amendments;
- Category 2: violent offenders, and other sexual offenders not required to register, who have been sentenced to 12 months imprisonment or more, or are detained under hospital or guardianship orders;
- Category 3: any other offenders who, because of the offences committed by them and their current behaviour, are considered to pose a serious risk of harm to the public.
Category 1 offenders will remain within the MAPPA until the registration period expires.
Category 2 offenders will remain within the MAPPA until the period of statutory supervision expires.
Category 3 offenders, some of whom may previously have been in either of the first two categories, will remain subject to the MAPPA until such time as they are deemed to no longer pose a risk of serious harm.
Non-convicted persons do not fall within the MAPPA as constituted by the legislation. Some non-convicted persons will nevertheless be regarded as posing a serious risk of harm to others on the basis of their current or previous behaviour.
For some cases of this type inter-agency processes may be established to share information, assess risk and plan interventions. These processes may well be closely modelled on the MAPPA, but it is essential that any managers and staff involved in them should understand, and should make explicit in the records, that the activities are not part of the MAPPA unless and until the person is convicted of a relevant offence.
The Three Levels of Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements
Sexual, violent and other dangerous offenders falling within the scope of the MAPPA should be dealt with according to the level of risk they pose and the level of intervention required to manage that risk. In line with the national guidance, a three-tier system for the management of MAPPA offenders operates in the West Midlands.
The three levels are:
- Level 1: Ordinary risk management - where the risks posed by the offender can safely be managed by a single agency without the active involvement of other agencies. Many violent offenders are appropriately managed at Level 1 Probation, as are some low risk registered sex offenders by the Police. There will often be normal inter-agency liaison and information sharing between practitioners about these offenders, but they will not require managers to be directly involved in risk management activity;
- Level 2: The Multi Agency Risk Action Plan (MARAP) - where the active involvement of more than one agency is needed to manage risk, involving middle managers as well as practitioners, but where the level of risk and/or of intervention required is not so great as to require referral to Level 3;
- Level 3: The Multi Agency Public Protection Panel (MAPPP) - where senior managers from the relevant agencies are involved in coordinating the management of “the critical few” offenders who pose the highest risk and/or are the most difficult and complex to manage.
The underpinning principles of the three-tier system are that cases should be managed at the lowest level consistent with public safety, and that MAPPA time and resources should focus sharply on “the critical few”. In order to avoid net-widening the criteria for access to the Level 3 MAPPP are fairly precise.
- Imminence of serious harm;
- Requires unusual resource allocation;
- Serious community concerns;
- Media implications;
- Need to involve other agencies not normally part to MAPPA.
Adherence to the criteria by all MAPPA agencies is essential to promote a consistent, effective and defensible approach to the management of “the critical few”.
The Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements in Operation
The role of the Joint Public Protection Unit (JPPU):
West Midlands Police and NPS - West Midlands have established a specialist Joint Protection Unit (JPPU) based in Police headquarters at Lloyd House (Tel: 0121 609 6954). The Unit plays a pivotal role in the management and coordination of the MAPPA.
The responsibilities of the JPPU are to:
- Undertake and review risk assessments on MAPPA offenders;
- Determine which offenders need to be managed by the Level 3 Panels;
- Provide a consistent presence at MAPPP meetings;
- Advise local staff on assessment and offender management issues;
- Maintain the West Midlands sex offender register;
- Maintain database of offenders managed at Level 3 and Level 2;
- Maintain database of MAPPA offenders in custody;
- Monitor MAPPA performance;
- Report periodically to the Strategic Management Board.
MAPPPs will meet at least quarterly. The lead Probation representative will be the local District Manager, supported by the relevant SPO(s) and offender managers(s). Police and Probation now share joint responsibility as regards arrangements for chairing, minuting and agenda setting. The precise details and schedules will be determined in each OCU/district. Some OCUs may cluster on a district-wide or sub-district basis.
MARAPs will meet at least bi-monthly. The lead Probation representative will be the local Senior Probation Officer, supported by the relevant offender manager(s). If the Senior Probation Officer is unable to attend cover must be provided by another Senior Probation Officer or the District Manager. The Police hold lead responsibility for convening, chairing and minuting, with Probation providing cover where necessary. In terms of recording brief details of the discussion and any agreed actions will be recorded, copies of which will be sent to relevant partner agencies.
For young offenders (i.e. under 18s) convicted of sexual, violent and other relevant offences, separate Youth Panels have been established in each district. All young offenders falling into this category will be referred initially to the Youth Panel, who will undertake risk assessments using an Asset Assessment and, in due course, a nationally validated equivalent of Risk Matrix 2000. Any young offender who is assessed as meeting the Level 3 criteria will be referred to the full MAPP via the JPPU. For all other cases the Youth Panel will formulate risk management plans and determine review dates according to the circumstances of the case.
Youth Panels will meet at a frequency to be determined locally. The Police hold lead responsibility for convening, chairing and minuting with the local YOS providing cover where necessary. Probation is not a core member of the Youth Panel but may be invited to attend for discussion of particular cases as appropriate.
Effective risk management depends upon effective sharing of relevant information. The Core agencies party to the MAPPA in the West Midlands have agreed a protocol setting out the principles governing information sharing and disclosure. The key features of information sharing between MAPPA agencies, as defined in the national guidance, are that it must be:
- Done with lawful authority - which is bestowed on the Responsible Authority agencies, and the Duty to cooperate agencies, by the MAPPA legislation;
- Necessary - for the purpose of properly assessing and managing the risks posed by offenders subject to the MAPPA provisions;
- Proportionate - to the extent that the risks could not effectively be assessed and managed without the information being shared or disclosed;
- Share safely and securely - which is the responsibility of each of the MAPPA agencies and their staff;
- Done on the basis that participating agencies are accountable for the information they hold.
The general principle applied within the West Midlands MAPPA is that participating agencies will share relevant information on offenders openly with each other, at Level 3 and Level 2 meetings or in other ways, operating the assumption information is shared explicitly for the purpose of public protection. Information shared within the MAPPA is confidential to the participating agencies. It should not normally be used outside the MAPPA without the agreement of the source agency. Each agency will be responsible for ensuring that documentary and electronic information is stored securely and accessible only to appropriate staff. Agencies should nominate a lead manager responsible for the dissemination and receipt of live intelligence and other confidential information.
Third Party Disclosure
There will, exceptionally, be cases where the management of an offenders risk cannot be ensured without disclosure of some information to one or more third parties outside the MAPPA. Confidential information will only be disclosed to a third party when one of more of the following criteria are met:
- The offender poses a risk of serious harm to the individual(s) to whom disclosure is to be made, or to others for who they have responsibility;
- The individual(s) to who disclosure is made requires the information in order to take some form of action to avoid or prevent harm;
- There is no other practicable, less intrusive means of protecting the individual(s) concerned;
- The risks posed by not informing the relevant individual(s) are deemed to outweigh the infringement of the offenders right to confidentiality.
The initial recommendation to disclose will normally be made at a MAPPP or MARAP meeting. In an emergency the application can be made following a telephone discussion provided at least two core agencies agree. The proposal would then be ratified at the next scheduled meeting. The final decision as to what information can be disclosed and to whom will be made by the Assistant Chief Constable (Crime).
The Criminal Justice Act 2003 introduced a “duty to cooperate” (DTC) with the MAPPA. The “Duty to Cooperate” requires the Responsible Authority (Police, Probation, Prisons) to cooperate with the following agencies, and requires those agencies to cooperate with the Responsible Authority:
- Local Authority Children’s Social Care Services;
- Local Housing Authorities;
- Local Education Authorities;
- Clinical Commissioning Groups, other NHS Trusts and Strategic Health Authorities;
- Youth Offending Teams;
- Jobcentre Plus;
- Registered Social Landlords who accommodate MAPPA offenders;
- Electronic Monitoring providers.
The purpose of the “Duty to Cooperate” provision is to ensure that the public protection work can draw information and expertise from a wide range of agencies that will strengthen the assessment and management of offenders subject to MAPPA. There is strong research and practise-based evidence to show that public protection is scientifically enhanced by a collaborative approach to addressing those factors - such as health care, accommodation and employment needs - that are linked to re-offending risk.
Each “Duty to Cooperate” agency has received general guidance from the relevant central government department on what duty means in practice. At the local level the MAPPA Strategic Management Board is required to establish a memorandum of understanding with each DTC agency, setting out the nature of the cooperation. Broadly, the cooperation is likely to involve:
- Attendance at, the provision of information to MAPPPs and MARAPs;
- Advice about the assessment and management of individual cases;
- Actions arising from risk management plans agreed by MAPPA panels.
Further guidance on the “Duty to Cooperate” provisions can be found in paragraphs 172 -290 of the MAPPA Guidance Manual (PC 54/2004)
10. Formal Applications to “set aside” invoking Child Protection Procedures as a Consequence of Schedule 1 Status
Such applications are made by professionals on behalf of a Person Presenting a Risk to Children or the offenders themselves in line with Home Office Regulations.
Safeguarding Children Service will check any information available to Children’s Social Care and other relevant agencies.
The Safeguarding Children Service Officer must convene a multi-agency meeting within 4 weeks which will involve Children’s Social Care Services, Probation, Police, Youth Offending Service and the Crown Prosecution Service and where appropriate the local authorities adult social care services.
Relevant information will be shared so that a conclusion can be reached and a recommendation made as to whether the Schedule 1 status should be set aside at this time.
The recommendations and a draft letter, as well as the minutes of the meeting, will be sent to the Director of Children’s Social Care to be agreed and signed.
If it is agreed the letter signed by the Director of Children’s Learning and Young People or his nominated Officer will be forwarded to the offender or his representative.
Copies will be kept at the Safeguarding Children Service of all relevant correspondence and minutes of meetings.
The offences listed in schedule 1 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 are:
- Murder or manslaughter of a child;
- Aaiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the suicide of a child;
- Common assault or battery on a child;
- Abandonment of a child under 2 years old;
- Unlawful removal or detention of a child under 16;
- Receiving or harbouring a child who has been unlawfully removed or detained;
- Cruelty to a child under 16;
- Allowing a child under 16 to be in a brothel;
- Causing or allowing a child under 16 to be used for begging;
- Exposing a child under 12 to risk of burning;
- Causing or allowing a child under 16 to take part in a dangerous public performance;
- Procurement or attempted procurement of a female child by threats or by false pretences;
- Administering drugs to a child to obtain or facilitate intercourse;
- Intercourse or attempted intercourse with a girl under the age of 16;
- Intercourse or attempted intercourse with a girl with severe mental impairment;
- Incest or attempted incest with a child;
- Buggery or attempted buggery with a child;
- Assault on a child with intent to commit buggery;
- Indecent assault on a child;
- Indecency with a child;
- Abduction of a girl under 18 for sexual intercourse;
- Causing or attempting to cause the prostitution of a female child;
- Procuration or attempted procuration of a girl;
- Detention of a female child in a brothel or other premises for sexual intercourse;
- Permitting a girl under 16 to use premises for sexual intercourse;
- Causing or encouraging prostitution of, intercourse with, or indecent assault on a girl under 16;
- Gross indecency with a child under 14;
- Incitement of a child under 14 to commit gross indecency;
- Abduction of a child by a parent or by other persons;
- Any other offence involving bodily injury to a child.
|False Imprisonment||Common Law|
|Assault or battery||Common Law|
|Indecent Exposure||Section 4||Vagrancy Act|
|Indecent Exposure||Section 28||Town Police Causes Act|
|Conspiring or soliciting to commit murder||Section 4||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Administering poison, or wounding, with intent to murder||Section 11||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Threats to kill||Section 16||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Wounding and causing grievous bodily harm; Wounding with intent||Section 18||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Wounding and causing grievous bodily harm; Inflicting bodily injury||Section 20||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Maliciously administering poison||Section 23||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Abandonment of children under two||Section 27||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Assault occasioning actual bodily harm||Section 47||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Child stealing||Section 56||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Drunk in charge of a child under 7 years||Section 2||Licensing Act 1902|
|Cruelty to children||Section 1||Children and Young Persons Act 1933|
|Allowing persons under 16 to be in brothels||Section 3||Children and Young Persons Act 1933|
|Causing or allowing persons under 16 to be used for begging||Section 4||Children and Young Persons Act 1933|
|Give/cause to be given intoxicating liquor to a child under 5 years||Section 5||Children and Young Persons Act 1933|
|Exposing children under seven to risk of burning||Section 11||Children and Young Persons Act 1933|
|Prohibition against persons under 16 taking part in performances endangering life and limb||Section 23||Children and Young Persons Act 1933|
|Infanticide||Section 1||Infanticide Act 1938|
|Rape||Section 1||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Procurement of a woman by threats||Section 2||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Procurement of a woman by false pretences||Section 3||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Administering drugs to obtain or facilitate intercourse||Section 4||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Intercourse with a girl under 13||Section 5||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Intercourse with a girl under 16||Section 6||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Intercourse with defective||Section 7||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Procurement of defective||Section 9||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Incest by a man||Section 9||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Incest by a woman||Section 11||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Buggery where the victim is under 16*||Section 12||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Indecency between men (gross indecency)||Section 13||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Indecency assault on a woman||Section 14||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Indecent assault on a man||Section 15||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Assault with intent to commit buggery||Section 16||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Abduction of a woman by force or for the sake of her property||Section 17||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Abduction of unmarried girl under 18 from parent or guardian||Section 19||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Abduction of unmarried girl under 16 from parent or guardian||Section 20||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Abduction of defective from parent or guardian||Section 21||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Causing prostitution of women||Section 22||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Procuration of girl under 21||Section 23||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Detention of a woman in a brothel or other premises||Section 24||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Permitting a girl under 13 to use premises for intercourse||Section 25||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Permitting a girl between 13 and 16 to use premises for intercourse||Section 26||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Permitting defective to use premises for intercourse||Section 27||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Causing or encouraging prostitution of, or intercourse with, or indecent assault on girl under 16||Section 28||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Causing or encouraging prostitution of defective||Section 29||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Man living on earnings of prostitution||Section 30||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Women exercising control over prostitute||Section 31||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Sexual intercourse with patients||Section 128||Mental Health Act 1959|
|Indecent conduct towards young child||Section 1||Indecency with Children Act 1960|
|Aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the suicide of a child or young person||Section 2||Suicide Act 1961|
|Procuring others to commit homosexual acts (by procuring a child to commit an act of buggery with any person, or procuring any person to commit an act of buggery with a child)||Section 4||Sexual Offences Act 1967|
|Living on earnings of male prostitution||Section 5||Sexual Offences Act 1967|
|Burglary (by entering a building or part of a building with intent to rape a child)||Section 9||Theft Act 1968|
|Supplying or offering to supply a Class A drug to a child, being concerned in the supplying of such a drug to a child, or being concerned in the making to a child of an offer to supply such a drug.||Section 4||Misuse of Drugs Act 1971|
|Inciting girl under 16 to have incestuous sexual intercourse||Section 54||Criminal Law Act 1977|
|Indecent photographs of children||Section 1||Protection of Children Act 1978|
|Offence of abduction of a child by parent||Section 1||Child Abduction Act 1984|
|Offence of abduction of child by other persons||Section 2||Child Abduction Act 1984|
|Possession of indecent photographs of children||Section 160||Criminal Justice Act 1988|
|Abduction of Child in Care/ Police Protection. Take away/induce away/assist to run away/ keep away||Section 49||Children Act 1989|
|Recovery of missing or unlawfully held children||Section 50||Children Act 1989|
|Abuse of Trust||Section 3||Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000|
|Traffic in prostitution||Section 145||Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002|
|Rape||Section 1||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Assault by penetration||Section 2||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual assault||Section 3||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a person to engage in sexual activity without consent||Section 4||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Rape of a child under 13||Section 5||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Assault of a child under 13 by penetration||Section 6||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual assault of a child under 13||Section 7||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting a child under 13 to engage in sexual activity||Section 8||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual Activity with a Child||Section 9||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity||Section 10||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Engaging in sexual activity in the presence of a child||Section 11||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a child to watch a sexual act||Section 12||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Child sex offences committed by children or young persons||Section 13||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Arranging or facilitating commission of a child sex offence||Section 14||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Meeting a child following sexual grooming etc.||Section 15||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Abuse of position of trust: sexual activity with a child||Section 16||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Abuse of position of trust causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity||Section 17||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Abuse of position of trust: sexual activity in the presence of a child||Section 18||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Abuse of position of trust: causing a child to watch a sexual act||Section 19||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual activity with a child family member||Section 25||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Inciting a child family member to engage in sexual activity||Section 26||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder impeding choice||Section 30||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting a person, with a mental disorder impeding choice, to engage in sexual activity||Section 31||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Engaging in sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder impeding choice||Section 32||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a person with a mental disorder impeding choice, to watch a sexual act||Section 33||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Inducement, threat or deception to procure sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder||Section 34||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a person with a mental disorder to engage in or agree to engage in sexual activity by inducement, threat or deception||Section 35||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Engaging in sexual activity in the presence, procured by inducement, threat or deception, of a person with a mental disorder||Section 36||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act by inducement, threat or deception||Section 37||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Care workers, sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder||Section 38||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Care workers, causing or inciting sexual activity||Section 39||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Care workers, sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder||Section 40||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Care workers: causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act||Section 41||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Paying for the sexual services of a child||Section 47||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting child prostitution or pornography||Section 48||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Controlling a child prostitute or a child involved in pornography||Section 49||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Arranging or facilitating child prostitution or pornography||Section 50||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting prostitution for gain||Section 52||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Controlling prostitution for gain||Section 53||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trafficking into the UK for sexual exploitation||Section 57||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trafficking within the UK for sexual exploitation||Section 58||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trafficking out of the UK for sexual exploitation||Section 59||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Administering a substance with intent||Section 61||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Committing an offence with intent to commit a sexual offence (in a case where the intended offence was an offence against a child)||Section 62||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trespass with intent to commit a sexual offence (in a case where the intended offence was an offence against a child)||Section 63||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Exposure||Section 66||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Voyeurism||Section 67||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trafficking people for exploitation||Section 4||Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.)|
A reference to an offence in this list includes:
[a reference to] any attempt, conspiracy or incitement to commit that offence,
[a reference to] aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of that offence.
Unless stated otherwise, the victim of the offences listed above will be under 18.